Transliteration to Unicode Converter
Please enter a passage with Egyptian transliteration below
Small ꜣ and ꜥ
Capital Ꜣ and Ꜥ
Ꜣ and ꜥ
The Unicode standard makes provision for separate characters for capital and small Egyptological aleph and ayin. This is at odds with modern practice, not least because non-Unicode fonts do not distinguish between these characters. Hence, D. A. Werning earlier suggested using capital aleph and ayin in all positions, as capital aleph and ayin look better in most modern fonts. This practice is followed in the
. However, in earlier Egyptological publications and most notably in A. H. Gardiner’s Egyptian Grammar, capital and small forms are distinguished from one another, as
pointed out by W. Schenkel
. Besides, distinguishing between lower- and upper-case characters is deemed semantically more correct than always using capital letters. Hence, the
use small aleph and ayin. Werning adopts this practice in the modern version (2018) of his convention.
i > ı͗ = ı and U+0357
i > i͗ = i and U+0357
i > i҆ = i and U+0486
i > i̯ = i and U+032F
i > ꞽ = U+A7BD
The encoding of the Egyptological yod in Unicode remains an unsettled issue. Generally, one of the three combining signs U+0313, U+0357, or U+0486 can be used to transform an i into yod.
In 2017, D. A. Werning advocated the use of the dotless ı (U+0131) in combination with U+0357, and this norm is
adopted in EpiDoc
the official Unicode FAQ
recommends using the ordinary i (U+0069) as base for any of the three combining diacritic characters.
The ordinary i is used in combination with U+0357 in the
recommended by D. Mastronarde
Werning adopts this approach in the latest (2018) version of his convention.
Another widely accepted approach is the use of the ordinary i in combination with U+0486. This combination is used in
the keyboard layouts by S. Rosmorduc
and recommended by
Unlike the captital and small variants of aleph and ayin, different encodings of yod are despite similar outlook mutually incompatible; computer software considers them completely different signs, not variants of the same sign.
i̯ (i and U+032F) is used in the Berlin Text System (BTS) to encode weak last consonants in verbs. It corresponds to i in the non-Unicode online version of the
Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae
. With this option selected, the converter also makes other transformations to make the transliteration compatible with the BTS.
Unicode 12.0 (March 2019) defines new characters for Egyptological Yod: ꞽ = U+A7BD (Latin small letter glottal I) and Ꞽ = U+A7BC (Latin capital letter glottal I). This should become the new standard. Yet as of December 2019, these characters are only supported by one freely available font,
New Athena Unicode
This page converts Egyptian transliteration passages set in non-Unicode fonts into Unicode following the conventions outlined by
D. A. Werning
and used in
Science in Ancient Egypt
and other digital Egyptological projects as well as by some of the publishers. S. Rosmorduc maintains
a list of compatible fonts
This converter supports the encoding schemes used in the fonts Transliteration (CCER), Trlit_CG Times (
The Deir el-Medina Database
), and Umschrift_TTn (
F. Junge/Universität Göttingen
) as well as different Unicode schemes as input.
similar converter by IFAO
uses a different (older) convention for the representation of the Egyptian transliteration signs aleph, ayin, and yod in the Unicode. The IFAO convention is
widely used in Egyptological projects
The IFAO flavour of Unicode transliteration is adopted by
Cachette de Karnak
among other digital projects.
In the “From Unicode” mode this page can convert the IFAO Unicode as well as the
private use characters used only in the New Athena Unicode font
to the convention used on this page. Another
tool by H. Wodtke
uses italicised mathematical symbols instead of Latin letters to make transliterated passages look cursive without changing the font style (thus, the result is incompatible with any of the current encoding conventions).
available on GitHub