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Translation and transliteration conventions

Tense and mood in translations

Translating personal names is complicated by the lack of context. Hence their interpretations are in many respects conjectural. In translating the personal names for the database, I essayed to avoid speculative interpretations and tried to keep translations neutral in terms of mood and tense.


Transliterations of Egyptian names and titles generally follow Edel 1955. To reflect the flexibility of the Middle Kingdom orthography, “s” is used instead of “z” in all cases. The following words are transliterated differently from Edel 1955 (merely a matter of convention, not intended to dispute other, often better-founded readings):
instead of Ws-Jrt for "Osiris"
instead of nʾt for "town"
instead of ḥꜣbt for "holiday, festival"
Ḥr and Ḥr.j
instead of Ḥrw for "Horus"
instead of zẖꜣ for "scribe"
Suffix-pronouns are separated with ⸗. Female, plural, dual, infinitive, stative endings, and nisbe suffixes are separated with a dot (.) in lexical entries for names and titles for the sake of correct sorting but not in attestations. Male and plural stative endings are not transliterated when not spelled out.